• 1. The Biggest Stadiums in the World   People have been pouring into stadiums since the days of ancient Greece. In around 8 A.Q., the Romans built the Colosseum, which remains the world's best known stadium are continues to inform contemporary design. Rome’s Colosseum was 157 feet tall and had 80 entrances, seating 50,000 people. However, that was small fry compared with the city’s Circus Maximus, which accommodated around 250,000 people.   These days, safety regulations-not to mention the modern sports fan’s desire for a good view and a comfortable seat-tend to keep stadium capacities(容量)slightly lower. Even soccer fans tend to have a seat each; gone are the days of thousands standing to watch the match.   For the biggest stadiums in the world, we have used data supplied by the World Atlas list so far, which ranks them by their stated permanent capacity, as well as updated information from official stadium websites.  All these stadiums are still functional, still open and still hosting the biggest events in world sport. •Rungrado 1st of May Stadium, Pyongyang, D.P.R-Korea. Capacity. 150,000. Opened. May 1,1989. •Michigan Stadium, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S. Capacity: 107,601. Opened. October 1, 1927. •Beaver Stadium, State College, Pennsylvania, U.S. Capacity: 106,572. Opened: September 17, I960. •Ohio Stadium, Columbus, Ohio, U.S. Capacity: 104,944. Opened: October 7, 1922. •Kyle Field, College Station, Texas, U.S. Capacity: 102,512. Opened: September 24,1927.

    阅读理解 2021年 ● 安徽卷

  • 2.   The polar bear is found in the Arctic Circle and some big land masses as far south as Newfoundland. While they are rare north of 88°, there is evidence _ they range all the way across the Arctic, and as far south as James Bay in Canada. It is difficult to figure out a global population of polar bears as much of the range has been _ (poor) studied; however, biologists calculate that there are about 20,000 - 25,000 polar bears worldwide.   Modern methods _ tracking polar bear populations have been employed only since the mid-1980s, and are expensive _ (perform) consistently over a large area. In recent years some Inuit people in Nunavut _ (report) increases in bear sightings around human settletments, leading to a _ (believe) that population are increasing. Scientists have responded by _ (note) that hungry bears may be congregating(聚集)around human settlements, leading to the illusion(错觉) that populations are _ (high) than they actually are. Of _ nineteen recognized polar bear subpopulations, three are declining, six _ (be) stable, one is increasing, and nine lack enough data.

    语法填空 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 3.   Every year about 40,000 people attempt to climb Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa. They _ with them lots of waste. The _ might damage the beauty of the place. The glaciers(冰川) are disappearing, changing the _ of Kilimanjaro.   Hearing these stories, I'm _ about the place - other destinations are described as "purer" natural experiences. However, I soon _ that much has changed since the days of disturbing reports of _ among tons of rubbish. I find a _ mountain, with toilets at camps and along the paths. The environmental challenges are _ but the efforts made by the Tanzania National Park Authority seem to be _.   The best of a Kilimanjaro _, in my opinion, isn't reaching the top. Mountains are _ as spiritual places by many cultures. This _ is especially evident on Kilimanjaro as _ go through five ecosystems (生态系统) in the space of a few kilometers. At the base is a rainforest. It ends abruptly at 3,000 meters, _ lands of low growing plants. Further up, the weather _ - low clouds envelope the mountainsides, which are covered with thick grass. I _ twelve shades of green from where I stand. Above 4,000 meters is the highland _ : gravel (砾石), stones and rocks. _ you climb into an arctic-like zone with _ snow and the glaciers that may soon disappear.   Does kilimanjaro _ its reputation as a crowded mountain with lines of tourists ruining the atmosphere of peace? I found the opposite to be true.

    完型填空 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 4. Is Fresh Air Really Good for You?   We all grew up hearing people tell us to "go out and get some fresh air." _ According to recent studies, the answer is a big YES, if the air quality in your camping area is good.   _ If the air you're breathing is clean - which it would be if you're away from the smog of cities - then the air is flled with life-giving, energizing oxygen. If you exercise out of doors, your body will learn to breathe more deeply, allowing even more oxygen to get to your muscles (肌肉) and your brain.   Recently, people have begun studying the connection between the natural world and healing (治愈). _ In these places patients can go to be near nature during their recovery. It turns out that just looking at green, growing things can reduce stress, lower blood pressure, and put people into a better mood (情绪). Greenery is good for us. Hospital patients who see tree branches out their window are likely to recover at a faster rate than patients who see buildings or sky instead. _ It gives us a great feeling of peace.   _ While the sun's rays can age and harm our skin, they also give us beneficial Vitamin D. To make sure you get enough Vitamin D - but still protect your skin - put on sunscreen right as you head outside. It takes sunscreen about fifteen minutes to start working, and that's plenty of time for your skin to absorb a day's worth of Vitamin D.

    选句填空 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 5.   During the rosy years of elementary school (小学), I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes , which allowed me to keep my high social status. I was the queen of the playground. Then came my tweens and teens, and mean girls and cool kids, They rose in the ranks not by being friendly but by smoking cigarettes, breaking rules and playing jokes on others, among whom I soon found myself.   Popularity is a well-explored subject in social psychology. Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers. The likables plays-well-with-others qualities strengthen schoolyard friendships , jump-start interpersonal skills and, when tapped early, are employed ever after in life and work. Then there's the kind of popularity that appears in adolescence: status born of power and even dishonorable behavior.   Enviable as the cool kids may have seemed, Dr. Prinstein's studies show unpleasant consequences. Those who were highest in status in high school, as well as those least liked in elementary school, are "most likely to engage (从事) in dangerous and risky behavior."   In one study, Dr. Prinstein examined the two types of popularity in 235 adolescents , scoring the least liked, the most liked and the highest in status bаѕеd оn ѕtudеnt ѕurvеуѕ (调查研究). "Wе fоund thаt thе lеаѕt wеll-lіkеd teens had become more aggressive over time toward their classmates. But so had those who were high in status, It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy adjusment , high status has just the opposite effect on us."   Dr. Prinstein has also found that the qualities that made the neighbors want you on a play date-sharing, kindness, openness-carry over to later years and make you better able to relate and connect with others.   In analyzing his and other research, Dr. Prinstein came to another conclusion: Not only is likability related to positive life outcomes, but it is also responsible for those outcomes, too. "Being liked creates opportunities for learning and for new kinds of life experiences that help somebody gain an advantage," he said.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 6.   As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric (生物测量) technologies - like fingerprint scans - to keep others out of private e-spaces. At present, these technologies are still expensive, though.   Researc hers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device (装置) that gets around this problem: a smart keyboard. This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence (节奏) with which one types and the pressure fingers apply to each key. The keyboard could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user's typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thus, the keyboard can determine people's identities, and by extension, whether they should be given access to the computer it's connected to regardless of whether someone gets the password right.   It also doesn't require a new type of technology that people aren't already familiar with. Everybody uses a keyboard and everybody types differently.   In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word "touch" four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to recognize dfferent participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 7.   For Canaan Elementary's second grade in Patchogue, N.Y., today is speech day, and right now it's Chris Palaez's turn. The 8-year-old is the joker of the class. With shining dark eyes , he seems like the kind of kid who would enjoy public speaking.   But he's nervous. "I'm here to tell you today why you should… should…" Chris trips on the "-ld," a pronunciation difficulty for many non-native English speakers. His teacher, Thomas Whaley, is next to him, whispering support. "… Vote for… me…" Except for some stumbles, Chris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion, Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him.   A son of immigrants, Chris started learning English a lttle over three years ago. Whaley recalls (回想起) how at the beginning of the year, when called upon to read, Chris would excuse himself to go to the bathroom.   Learning English as a second language can be a painful experience. What you need is a great teacher who lets you make mistakes. "It takes a lot for any student," Whaley explains, "especially for a student who is learning English as their new language, to feel confident enough to say, 'I don't know, but I want to know.' "   Whaley got the idea of this second-grade presidential campaign projet when he asked the children one day to raise their hands if they thought they could never be a president. The answer broke his heart, Whaley says the project is about more than just learning to read and speak in public. He wants these kids to learn to boast (夸耀) about themselves.   "Boasting about yourself, and your best qualities," Whaley says, "is very dificult for a child who came into the classroom not feeling confident."

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 8. Need a Job This Summer?   The provincial government and its partners offer many programs to help students find summer jobs. The deadlines and what you need to apply depend on the program.   Not a student? Go to the government website to learn about programs and online tools available to help people under 30 build skills, find a job or start businesses all year round. Jobs for Youth   If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible (符合条件) for this program, which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training.   Who is eligible: Youth 15 — 18 years old in select communities(社区). Summer Company   Summer Company provides students with hands-on business training and awards of up to $3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses.   Who is eligible: Students aged 15 — 29 , returning to school in the fall. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program   You could apply to be a Stewardship Youth Ranger and work on local natural resource management projects for eight weeks this summer.   Who is eligible: Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year. Summer Employment Opportunities (机会)   Though the Summer Employment Oporonitites program, students are hired each year in a variety of summer positions across the Provincial Public Service, its related agencies and community groups.   Who is eigile: Students aged 15 or older. Some positions require students to be 15 to 24 or up to 29 for persons with a diability.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 9.   Much of the work in today's world is accomplished (完成) in teams. Most people believe the best way to build a great team is to gather a group of the most talented individuals. _ Companies spend millions hiring top business people. Is their money well spent?   _ They focused on football, basketball and baseball. The results are mixed. For football and basketball, adding talented players to a team proves a good method, but only up to the point where 70% of the players are top talent; above that level, the team's performance begins to decline. Interestingly, this trend isn't evident in baseball, where additional individual talent keeps improving the team's performance.   To explain this phenomenon, the researchers explored the degree to which a good performance by a team requires its members to coordinate (协调) their actions. _ In baseball, the performance of individual players is less dependent on teammates. They conclude that when task interdependence is high, team performance will suffer when there is too much talent, while individual talent will have positive effects on team performance when task interdependence is lower. If a basketball star is, forexample, trying to gain a high personal point total, he may take a shot himself when it would be better to pass the ball to a teammate, affecting the team's performance. Young children learning to play team sports are often told, "There is no I in TEAM." _   Another possibility is that when there is a lot of talent on a team, some players may make less effort. Just as in a game of tug-of-war (拔河比赛) whenever a person is added, everyone else pulls the rope with less force.   _ An A-team may require a balance - not just A players, but a few generous B players as well.

    选句填空 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 10.   By the end of the century, if not sooner, the world's oceans will be bluer and greener thanks to a warming climate , according to a new study.   At the heart of the phenomenon lie tiny marine microorganisms (海洋微生物) саllеd рhуtорlаnktоn. Весаuѕе оf thе wау lіght rеflесtѕ оff thе organisms , these phytoplankton create colourful patterns at the ocean surface. Ocean colour varies from green to blue, depending on the type and concentration of phytoplankton. Climate change will fuel the growth of phytoplankton in some areas, while reducing it in other spots, leading to changes in the ocean's appearance.   Phytoplankton live at the ocean surface, where they pull carbon dioxide(二氧化碳) into the ocean while giving off oxygen. When these organisms die, they bury carbon in the deep ocean, an important process that helps to regulate the global climate. But phytoplankton are vulnerable to the ocean's warming trend. Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth, since they need not only sunlight and carbon dioxide to grow, but also nutrients.   Stephanie Dutkiewicz, a scientist in MIT's Center for Global Change Science, built a climate model that projects changes to the oceans throughout the century. In a world that warms up by 3℃, it found that multiple changes to the colour of the oceans would occur. The model projects that currently blue areas with little phytoplankton could become even bluer. But in some waters, such as those of the Arctic, a warming will make conditions riper for phytoplankton, and these areas will turn greener. "Not only are the quantities of phytoplankton in the ocean changing," she said, " but the type of phytoplankton is changing."   And why does that matter? Phytoplankton are the base of the food web. If certain kinds begin to disappear from the ocean, Dutkiewicz said,"it will change the type of fish that will be able to survive." Those kinds of changes could affect the food chain.   Whatever colour changes the ocean experiences in the coming decades will probably be too gradual and unnoticeable, but they could mean significant changes. "It'll be a while before we can statistically show that the changes are happening because of climate change," Dutkiewicz said, "but the change in the colour of the ocean will be one of the early warning signals that we really have changed our planet. "

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷