• 1.   Fluid intelligence is the type of intelligence that has to do with short-term memory and the ability to think quickly, logically, and abstractly in order to solve new problems. It _ in young adulthood, levels out for a period of time, and then _ starts to slowly decline as we age. But _ aging is inevitable, scientists are finding that certain changes in brain function may not be.   One study found that muscle loss and the _ of body fat around the abdomen are associated with a decline in fluid intelligence. This suggests the _ that lifestyle factors might help prevent or _ this type of decline.   The researchers looked at data that _ measurements of lean muscle and abdominal fat from more than 4,000middle-to-older-aged men and women and _ that data to reported changes in fluid intelligence over a six-year period. They found that middle-aged people _ higher measures of abdominal fat _ worse on measures of fluid intelligence as the years _ .   For women, the association may be _ to changes in immunity that resulted from excess abdominal fat; in men, the immune system did not appear to be _ . It is hoped that future studies could _ these differences and perhaps lead to different _ for men and women.   _ , there are steps you can _ to help reduce abdominal fat and maintain lean muscle mass as you age in order to protect both your physical and mental _ . The two highly recommended lifestyle approaches are maintaining or increasing your _ of aerobic exercise and following a Mediterranean-style _ that is high in fiber and eliminates highly processed foods.

    完型填空 2021年 ● 考研英语(一)

  • 2.   The idea that plants have some degree of consciousness first took root in the early 2000s; the term “plant neurobiology” was _ around the notion that some aspects of plant behavior could be _ to intelligence in animals. _ plants lack brains, the firing of electrical signals in their stems and leaves nonetheless triggered responses that _ consciousness, researchers previously reported. But such an idea is untrue, according to a new opinion article. Plant biology is complex and fascinating, but it _ so greatly from that of animals that so-called _ of plants’ intelligence is inconclusive, the authors wrote. Beginning in 2006, some scientists have _ that plants possess neuron-like cells that interact with hormones and neurotransmitters, _ “a plant nervous system, _ to that in animals,” said lead study author Lincoln Taiz, “They _ claimed that plants have ‘brain-like command centers’ at their root tips.” This _ makes sense if you simplify the workings of a complex brain, _ it to an array of electrical pulses; cells in plants also communicate through electrical signals. _ , the signaling in a plant is only _ similar to the firing in a complex animal brain, which is more than “a mass of cells that communicate by electricity,” Taiz said. “For consciousness to evolve, a brain with a threshold _ of complexity and capacity is required,” he _ . “Since plants don’t have nervous systems, the _ that they have consciousness are effectively zero.” And what’s so great about consciousness, anyway? Plants can’t run away from _ , so investing energy in a body system which _ a threat and can feel pain would be a very _ evolutionary strategy, according to the article.

    完型填空 2022年 ● 考研英语(一)

  • 3.   Simply saying thank you doesn't seem enough in certain situations. I was considering this while working as a _ Just a few weeks ago. And it came to me then how much easier it would be if we had a range of words that express different _ of gratitude (感谢).   My thoughts were soon _ . We had a woman patient who was _ from a knee replacement operation. One afternoon, while _ to get into bed she collapsed (倒下) from what was _ discovered to be a heart attack. The collapse was disastrous, _ the emergency medical team and good teamwork. But she recovered, though _ ,and was ready for discharge (出 院)after four weeks.   She was _ for everything that the medical and nursing team had done for her. On her day of discharge, we shared in her _ at her recovery. As she was _ she was eager to say _ to each of us in the nursing team. When she _ one nurse, she tried to press a five-pound note into her hand. My colleague _ to accept it, saying that we were all just _ our job. The patient looked puzzled, and then _ : "Oh this isn't for the _ I had. I take that as a _ . No, this is for setting my hair yesterday.''   And there you have it. To many people, _ lives is part of the job but styling hair is an _ and should be rewarded.

    完型填空 2021年 ● 安徽卷

  • 4.   Every year about 40,000 people attempt to climb Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa. They _ with them lots of waste. The _ might damage the beauty of the place. The glaciers(冰川) are disappearing, changing the _ of Kilimanjaro.   Hearing these stories, I'm _ about the place - other destinations are described as "purer" natural experiences. However, I soon _ that much has changed since the days of disturbing reports of _ among tons of rubbish. I find a _ mountain, with toilets at camps and along the paths. The environmental challenges are _ but the efforts made by the Tanzania National Park Authority seem to be _.   The best of a Kilimanjaro _, in my opinion, isn't reaching the top. Mountains are _ as spiritual places by many cultures. This _ is especially evident on Kilimanjaro as _ go through five ecosystems (生态系统) in the space of a few kilometers. At the base is a rainforest. It ends abruptly at 3,000 meters, _ lands of low growing plants. Further up, the weather _ - low clouds envelope the mountainsides, which are covered with thick grass. I _ twelve shades of green from where I stand. Above 4,000 meters is the highland _ : gravel (砾石), stones and rocks. _ you climb into an arctic-like zone with _ snow and the glaciers that may soon disappear.   Does kilimanjaro _ its reputation as a crowded mountain with lines of tourists ruining the atmosphere of peace? I found the opposite to be true.

    完型填空 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 5.   Regardless of the weather or the distance, Paul Wilson will make sure low-income students in his neighbourhood arrive at their college classes on time.   A retired enginner, 76-year-old Wilson has been _ free rides to college students for the past eight years. Since he first started _ his car to the young people, Wilson has _ an astonishing 64,000 miles, and has had countless pleasant and often humorous _ with the students he transports to and from school. The students who he's _ have gone on to become physicians, teachers and ngineers, but what they've also got out of their time in school is finding a role model and a friend in Wilson. Some students _ call him "Grandpa".   Tina Stern _ rides from Wilson for all her four years in college, and the trips meant much more to her than just free _ . "It's not just a ride; you're not just sitting there in _ silence or with your headphones on," Stern said. "He asks you questions and actually _ the answers, so the next time you ride with him, he'll _ those things."    Wilson first worked as a driver through a student-support programme of the non-profit organisation, On Point for College. Although the _ asks the members only to drive students to and from their classes, Wilson often goes _ to ensure the welfare and safety of the students. If they have problems with registration, Wilson is there to _ them. If they run out of certain daily necessities, Wilson will drive to the nearest store and purchase what's needed. If a student gets hungry on the long drives to and from school, Wilson never _ to buy them a meal.    For many students, Wilson's help is not only appreciated, it's also entirely _ for them to be able to complete their college education. Some students don't have a reliable car, while others have to _ vehicles with parents who work six days a week. For them, riding with Wilson has _ them to complete their education — but according to Wilson, he benefits just as much from the _. "I just love driving, and I love these kids," Wilson said. "It's such a(n) _ to be a part of these kids' lives, even just for a few hours, geting to know them and hearing their stories."

    完型填空 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 6.   No one is borm a winner. People make themselves into winners by their own _ .   I learned this lesson from a(n) _ many years ago. I took the head _ job at a school in Baxley , Georgia. It was a small school with a weak football program.   It was a tradition for the school's old team to play against the _ team at the end of spring practice. The old team had no coach, and they didn't even practice to _ the game. Being the coach of the new team, I was excited because I knew we were going to win, but to my disappointment we were defeated. I couldn't _ I had got into such a situation. Thinking hard about it, I came to _ that my team might not be the number one team in Georgia, but they were _ me. I had to change my _ about their ability and potential.   I started doing anything I could to help them build a little _. Most important, I began to treat them like _. That summer, when the other teams enjoyed their _ , we met every day and _ passing and kicking the football.   Six months after suffering our _ on the spring practice field, we won our first game and our second, and continued to _. Finally, we faced the number one team in the state. I felt that it would be a _ for us even if we lost the game. But that wasn't what happened. My boys beat the best team in Georgia, giving me one of the greatest _ of my life!   From the experience I learned a lot about how the attitude of the leader can _ the members of a team. Instead of seeing my boys as losers, I pushed and _ them. I helped them to see themselves _, and they built themselves into winners.   Winners are made, not born.

    完型填空 2018年 ● 天津卷

  • 7.   There are lots of ways to raise awareness for a cause. Usually, the _ the idea is, the more it gets noticed. And that's precisely why one _ Frenchman has caught our attention.   Baptiste Dubanchet is biking across Europe, surviving _ on discarded (丢弃) food. The three-month, 1,900-mile journey from Paris to Warsaw is Dubanchet's _ of raising awareness of food waste in Europe and throughout the world.   As you can _ , the trip is no piece of cake. While restaurants _ tons of food each year, much of it remains inaccessible because of _ garbage containers, health regulations, or business policies. Only about one in ten places _ him food that would otherwise be discarded. For legal _ most restaurants have a policy against _ food waste. "Some people have even _ their jobs by giving me food," Dubanchet said.   What's _ interesting is the attitude various cities have toward Dubanchet's cause. Berlin has been the _ while the most difficult was the Czech town of Pilsen. There, he had to _ at some 50 different stores or restaurants before finding food. The _ is all the more serious when you consider the _ exercise required to bike from France to Poland.   "I have to get food _ because after all the biking I am tired and I need the _ ," Dubanchet explained. "Is my _ full or empty? That is the most important thing, not waht I am eating."   He aims to _ his journey by mid-July. With any luck, he'll turn a few more heads in the process.

    完型填空 2019年 ● 浙江卷

  • 8.   I was ready to pay for my bananas at the grocery one night, when fear seized me. My wallet was gone. I could only have left it on the G9 bus,which was now speeding in the dark to some _ station.   The _ moment was quickly followed by mental math. How much time and money would it cost to replace the _ of that little wallet? The credit cards, the driver's license, the cash, all lost to the bus.   Two hours later, back at my house, I heard a knock on the door. My husband _ it while I was on the phone in the dining room. "Does jennifer live here?" I heard a lady say. In my husband's hand was my wallet, with not a penny _ . She left before I could _ make it to the door to offer my thanks.   After sharing the story online, I heard from someone, who _ the lady as Erin Smith. Without _ , I called to thank her. She said she _ my wallet on a bus seat. She _ that going to a stranger's house was a _ move, but she decided to take the chance. "If I were in that _ , I would want someone to try to find me", she said.   This one stranger responded beautifully to my small _, but she actually wasn't the only one. Right after Erin _ my wallet on the bus, she posted a picture of my driver's license to an online forum(论坛), trying to see _ anyone knew me. No sooner did she leave my doorstep than I had emails from two women whose kids go to my son's nursery and who recognized my face. I've never _ words with those moms beyond small talk, but they wanted to help. I read that people are more divided than ever, but that's not how the people I _ tend to act.   _, I feel blessed someone had wanted to help a stranger. Erin had gone _ what almost anyone would have done, finding my house on a bitterly cold night, and for that I was extremely _.

    完型填空 2019年 ● 天津卷