• 1.   The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don't know. By next year, half of the calls we receive will be scams(欺诈). We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of tools, apps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunately, it's too little, too late. By the time these "solutions" (解决方案) become widely available, scammers will have moved onto cleverer means. In the near future, it's not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. Soon you will also question whether the voice you're hearing is actually real.   That's because there are a number of powerful voice manipulation (处理) and automation technologies that are about to become widely available for anyone to use. At this year's I/O Conference, a company showed a new voice technology able to produce such a convincing human-sounding volce that it was able to speak to a receptionist and book a reservation without detection.   These developments are likely to make our current problems with robocalls much worse. The reason that robocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision. A decade of data breaches (数据侵人) of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mother's name,and far more. Armed with this knowledge, they're able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This means, for example, that a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank teller's, tricking you into “confirming" your address, mother's name, and card number. Scammers follow money,so companies will be the worst hit. A lot of business is still done over the phone, and much of it is based on trust and existing relationships. Voice manipulation technologies may weaken that gradually.   We need to deal with the insecure nature of our telecom networks. Phone carriers and consumers need to work together to find ways of determining and communicating what is real. That might mean either developing a uniform way to mark videos and images, showing when and who they were made by, or abandoning phone calls altogether and moving towards data-based communications - using apps like FaceTime or WhatsApp, which can be tied to your identity.   Credibility is hard to earn but easy to lose, and the problem is only going to get harder from here on out.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 2.   Alice Moore is a teenager entrepreneur (创业者), who in May 2015 set up her business AilieCandy. By the time she was 13, her company was worth millions of dollars with the invention of a super-sweet treat that could save kids' teeth, instead of destroying them.   It all began when Moore visited a bank with her dad. On the outing, she was offered a candy bar. However, her dad reminded her that sugary treats were bad for her teeth. But Moore was sick of missing out on candies. So she desired to get round the warning, "Why can't I make a healthy candy that's good for my teeth so that my parents can't say no to it?" With that in mind, Moore asked her dad if she could start her own candy company. He recommended that she do some research and talk to dentists about what a healthier candy would contain.   With her dad's permission, she spent the next two years researching online and conducting trials to get a recipe that was both tasty and tooth-friendly. She also approached dentists to learn more about teeth cleaning. Consequently, she succeeded in making a kind of candy only using natural sweeteners, which can reduce oral bacteria.   Moore then used her savings to get her business off the ground. Afterwards, she and her father secured their first business meeting with a supermarket owner, who finally agreed to sell Moore's product - CanCandy.   As CanCandy's success grows, so does Moore's credibility as a young entrepreneur. Moore is enthusiastic about the candy she created, and she's also positive about what the future might bring. She hopes that every kid can have a clean mouth and a broad smile.   Meanwhile, with her parents help, Moore is generally able to live a normal teenage life. Although she founded her company early on in life, she wasn't driven primarily by profit. Moore wants to use her unique talent to help others find their smiles. She donates 10% of AilieCandy's profits to Big Smiles. With her talent and determination, it appears that the sky could be the limit for Alice Moore.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 3.   Want to explore new cultures , meet new people and do something worthwhile at the same time? You can do all the three with Global Development Association (GDA). Whatever stage of life you're at, wherever you go and whatever project you do in GDA, you'll create positive changes in a poor and remote community (社区).   We work with volunteers of all ages and backgrounds. Most of our volunteers are aged 17 — 24. Now we need volunteer managers aged 25 — 75.They are extremely important in the safe and effective running of our programmes. We have such roles as project managers, mountain leaders, and communication officers.   Depending on which role you choose, you could help to increase a community's access to safe drinking water , or help to protect valuable local cultures. You might also design an adventure challenge to train young volunteers.   Not only will you help our young volunteers to develop personally, you'll also learn new skills and inerease your cultural awareness. You may have chances to meet new people who'll become your lifelong friends.   This summer we have both 4-week and 7-week programmes: Country Schedule 4-week programmes 7-week programmes Algeria 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug. Egypt 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug. Eenya 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug. South Africa 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug.   GDA ensures that volunteers work with community members and local project partners where our help is needed. All our projects aim to promote the development of poor and remore communities.   There is no other chance like a GDA programme. Join us as a volunteer manager to develop your own skills while bringing benefits to the communities.   Find out more about joining a GDA programme:   Website:www.glodeve.org   Email:humanresources@glodeve.org

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 4. Does the name of the college you attend really matter? Research on the question _ (suggest) that, for most students, it doesn't. What students do at college seems to matter much more than _ they go. The students benefiting most from college are those _ are totally engaged(参与) in academic life, taking full advantage of the college's chances and resources (资源). Students should have a proper attitude towards college before thinking about which college to attend, and its never too early to make necessary preparations for a healthy and _ (meaning) college experience.

    语法填空 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 5.   Regardless of the weather or the distance, Paul Wilson will make sure low-income students in his neighbourhood arrive at their college classes on time.   A retired enginner, 76-year-old Wilson has been _ free rides to college students for the past eight years. Since he first started _ his car to the young people, Wilson has _ an astonishing 64,000 miles, and has had countless pleasant and often humorous _ with the students he transports to and from school. The students who he's _ have gone on to become physicians, teachers and ngineers, but what they've also got out of their time in school is finding a role model and a friend in Wilson. Some students _ call him "Grandpa".   Tina Stern _ rides from Wilson for all her four years in college, and the trips meant much more to her than just free _ . "It's not just a ride; you're not just sitting there in _ silence or with your headphones on," Stern said. "He asks you questions and actually _ the answers, so the next time you ride with him, he'll _ those things."    Wilson first worked as a driver through a student-support programme of the non-profit organisation, On Point for College. Although the _ asks the members only to drive students to and from their classes, Wilson often goes _ to ensure the welfare and safety of the students. If they have problems with registration, Wilson is there to _ them. If they run out of certain daily necessities, Wilson will drive to the nearest store and purchase what's needed. If a student gets hungry on the long drives to and from school, Wilson never _ to buy them a meal.    For many students, Wilson's help is not only appreciated, it's also entirely _ for them to be able to complete their college education. Some students don't have a reliable car, while others have to _ vehicles with parents who work six days a week. For them, riding with Wilson has _ them to complete their education — but according to Wilson, he benefits just as much from the _. "I just love driving, and I love these kids," Wilson said. "It's such a(n) _ to be a part of these kids' lives, even just for a few hours, geting to know them and hearing their stories."

    完型填空 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 6. Earth Day, _ (mark) on 22 April, is an annual event aiming to raise public awareness about environmental protection. First celebrated _ 1970, the Day now includes events in more than 190 countries and regions (地区). No matter what you like to do, there is a way to get involved in various _ (activity) on Earth Day. You can plant a tree, make a meal with locally grown vegetables , or save power — the possibilities are endless.

    语法填空 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 7. On the first day of my first grade, I stood by the door with butterflies in my stomach. I _ (voice) my biggest concern to my mother, "How will I make friends?" She handed me advice, "Be yourself. " For the past 20 years,I have lived by these words. Soon I will graduate and become part of the real world. Nervously _ (face) challenges, I know I will whisper to _ (I) the two simple words "Be yourself" .

    语法填空 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 8.   Give youself a test. Which way is the wind blowing? How many kinds of wildflowers can be seen from your front door? If your awareness is as sharp as it could be, you'll have no trouble answering these questions.   Most of us observed much more as children than we do as adults. A child's day is filled with fascination, newness and wonder. Curiosity gave us all a natural awareness. But distinctions that were sharp to us as children become unclear; we are numb(麻木的) to new stimulation(刺激),new ideas. Relearning the art of seeing the world around us is quite simple, although it takes practice and requires breaking some bad habits.   The first step in awakening senses is to stop predicting what we are going to see and feel before it occurs. This blocks awareness. One chilly night when I was hiking in the Rocky Mountains with some students, I mentioned that we were going to cross a mountain stream. The students began complaining about how cold it would be. We reached the stream, and they unwillingly walked ahead . They were almost knee - deep when they realized it was a hot spring. Later they all admitted they'd felt cold water at first.   Another block to awareness is the obsession (痴迷) many of us have with naming things. I saw bird watchers who spotted a bird, immediately looked it up in field guides, and said, a "ruby-crowned kinglet" and checked it off. They no longer paid attention to the bird and never learned what it was doing.   The pressures of "time" and "destination" are further blocks to awareness. l encountered many hikers who were headed to a distant camp-ground with just enough time to get there before dark. It seldom occurred to them to wander a bit, to take a moment to see what's around them. I asked them what they'd seen. "Oh, a few birds," they said. They seemed bent on their destinations.   Nature seems to unfold to people who watch and wait. Next time you take a walk, no matter where it is, take in all the sights , sounds and sensations. Wander in this frame of mind and you will open a new dimension to your life.

    阅读理解 2018年 ● 天津卷

  • 9.   There's a new frontier in 3D printing that's beginning to come into focus: food. Recent development has made possible machines that print, cook, and serve foods on a mass scale. And the industry isn't stopping there. Food production   With a 3D printer, a cook can print complicated chocolate sculptures and beautiful pieces for decoration on a wedding cake. Not everybody can do that - it takes years of experience, but a printer makes it easy. A restaurant in Spain uses a Foodini to "re-create forms and pieces" of food that are "exactly the same," freeing cooks to complete other tasks. In another restaurant, all of the dishes and desserts it serves are 3D-printed, rather than farm to table. Sustainability (可持续性)   The global population is expected to grow to 9.6 billion by 2050, and some analysts estimate that food production will need to be raised by 50 percent to maintain current levels. Sustainability is becoming a necessity. 3D food printing could probably contribute to the solution. Some experts believe printers could use hydrocolloids (水解胶体) from plentiful rеnеwаblеѕ lіkе аlgае (藻类) аnd grаѕѕ tо rерlасе thе fаmіlіаr іngrеdіеntѕ(烹饪原料). 3D printing can reduce fuel use and emissions. Grocery stores of the future might stock "food" that lasts years on end, freeing up shelf space and reducing transportation and storage requirements. Nutrition   Future 3D food printers could make processed food healthier. Hod Lipson, a professor at Columbia University, said, "Food printing could allow consumers to print food with customized nutritional content, like vitamins. So instead of eating a piece of yesterday's bread from the supermarket, you'd eat something baked just for you on demand. " Challenges   Despite recent advancements in 3D food printing, the industry has many challenges to overcome. Currently, most ingredients must be changed to a paste (糊状物) before a printer can use them, and the printing process is quite time-consuming, because ingredients interact with each other in very complex ways . On top of that,most of the 3D food printers now are restricted to dry ingredients, because meat and milk products may easily go bad. Some experts are skeptical about 3D food printers, believing they are better suited for fast food restaurants than homes and high-end restaurants.

    阅读理解 2018年 ● 天津卷

  • 10.   When I was 17, I read a magazine article about a museum called the McNay, once the home of a watercolorist named Marian McNay. She had requested the community to turn it into a museum upon her death. On a sunny Saturday, Sally and I drove over to the museum. She asked, " Do you have the address?" "No, but I'll recognize it, there was a picture in the magazine."   "Oh, stop. There it is!"   The museum was free. We entered, excited. A group of people sitting in the hall stopped talking and stared at us.   "May I help you?" a man asked. "No," I said. " We're fine. " Tour guides got on my nerves. What if they talked a long time about a painting you weren't that interested in? Sally had gone upstairs. The people in the hall seemed very nosy (爱窥探的), keeping their eyes on me with curiosity. What was their problem? I saw some nice sculptures in one room. Suddenly I sensed a man standing behind me. " Where do you think you are?" he asked. I turned sharply. "The McNay Art Museum!" He smiled, shaking his head. "Sorry, the McNay is on New Braunfels Street." "What's this place?" I asked, still confused. "Well, it's our home." My heart jolted(震颤). I raced to the staircase and called out, "Sally! Come down immediately!"   "There's some really good stuff (艺术作品) up there." She stepped down, looking confused. I pushed her toward the front door, waving at the family, saying, "Sorry, please forgive us, you have a really nice place." Outside, when I told Sally what happened, she covered her mouth, laughing. She couldn't believe how long they let us look around without saying anything.   The real McNay was splendid, but we felt nervous the whole time we were there. Van Cogh, Picasso. This time, we stayed together, in case anything else unusual happened.   Thirty years later, a woman approached me in a public place. "Excuse me, did you ever enter a residence, long ago, thinking it was the McNay Museum?"   "Yes. But how do you know? We never told anyone. "   That was my home. I was a teenager siting in the hall. Before you came over, I never realized what a beautiful place I lived in. I never felt lucky before. You thought it was a museum. My felings about my home changed after that. I've always wanted to thank you."

    阅读理解 2018年 ● 天津卷

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