• 1.   During the rosy years of elementary school (小学), I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes , which allowed me to keep my high social status. I was the queen of the playground. Then came my tweens and teens, and mean girls and cool kids, They rose in the ranks not by being friendly but by smoking cigarettes, breaking rules and playing jokes on others, among whom I soon found myself.   Popularity is a well-explored subject in social psychology. Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers. The likables plays-well-with-others qualities strengthen schoolyard friendships , jump-start interpersonal skills and, when tapped early, are employed ever after in life and work. Then there's the kind of popularity that appears in adolescence: status born of power and even dishonorable behavior.   Enviable as the cool kids may have seemed, Dr. Prinstein's studies show unpleasant consequences. Those who were highest in status in high school, as well as those least liked in elementary school, are "most likely to engage (从事) in dangerous and risky behavior."   In one study, Dr. Prinstein examined the two types of popularity in 235 adolescents , scoring the least liked, the most liked and the highest in status bаѕеd оn ѕtudеnt ѕurvеуѕ (调查研究). "Wе fоund thаt thе lеаѕt wеll-lіkеd teens had become more aggressive over time toward their classmates. But so had those who were high in status, It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy adjusment , high status has just the opposite effect on us."   Dr. Prinstein has also found that the qualities that made the neighbors want you on a play date-sharing, kindness, openness-carry over to later years and make you better able to relate and connect with others.   In analyzing his and other research, Dr. Prinstein came to another conclusion: Not only is likability related to positive life outcomes, but it is also responsible for those outcomes, too. "Being liked creates opportunities for learning and for new kinds of life experiences that help somebody gain an advantage," he said.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 2.   As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric (生物测量) technologies - like fingerprint scans - to keep others out of private e-spaces. At present, these technologies are still expensive, though.   Researc hers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device (装置) that gets around this problem: a smart keyboard. This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence (节奏) with which one types and the pressure fingers apply to each key. The keyboard could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user's typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thus, the keyboard can determine people's identities, and by extension, whether they should be given access to the computer it's connected to regardless of whether someone gets the password right.   It also doesn't require a new type of technology that people aren't already familiar with. Everybody uses a keyboard and everybody types differently.   In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word "touch" four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to recognize dfferent participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 3.   For Canaan Elementary's second grade in Patchogue, N.Y., today is speech day, and right now it's Chris Palaez's turn. The 8-year-old is the joker of the class. With shining dark eyes , he seems like the kind of kid who would enjoy public speaking.   But he's nervous. "I'm here to tell you today why you should… should…" Chris trips on the "-ld," a pronunciation difficulty for many non-native English speakers. His teacher, Thomas Whaley, is next to him, whispering support. "… Vote for… me…" Except for some stumbles, Chris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion, Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him.   A son of immigrants, Chris started learning English a lttle over three years ago. Whaley recalls (回想起) how at the beginning of the year, when called upon to read, Chris would excuse himself to go to the bathroom.   Learning English as a second language can be a painful experience. What you need is a great teacher who lets you make mistakes. "It takes a lot for any student," Whaley explains, "especially for a student who is learning English as their new language, to feel confident enough to say, 'I don't know, but I want to know.' "   Whaley got the idea of this second-grade presidential campaign projet when he asked the children one day to raise their hands if they thought they could never be a president. The answer broke his heart, Whaley says the project is about more than just learning to read and speak in public. He wants these kids to learn to boast (夸耀) about themselves.   "Boasting about yourself, and your best qualities," Whaley says, "is very dificult for a child who came into the classroom not feeling confident."

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 4. Need a Job This Summer?   The provincial government and its partners offer many programs to help students find summer jobs. The deadlines and what you need to apply depend on the program.   Not a student? Go to the government website to learn about programs and online tools available to help people under 30 build skills, find a job or start businesses all year round. Jobs for Youth   If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible (符合条件) for this program, which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training.   Who is eligible: Youth 15 — 18 years old in select communities(社区). Summer Company   Summer Company provides students with hands-on business training and awards of up to $3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses.   Who is eligible: Students aged 15 — 29 , returning to school in the fall. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program   You could apply to be a Stewardship Youth Ranger and work on local natural resource management projects for eight weeks this summer.   Who is eligible: Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year. Summer Employment Opportunities (机会)   Though the Summer Employment Oporonitites program, students are hired each year in a variety of summer positions across the Provincial Public Service, its related agencies and community groups.   Who is eigile: Students aged 15 or older. Some positions require students to be 15 to 24 or up to 29 for persons with a diability.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 5.   Much of the work in today's world is accomplished (完成) in teams. Most people believe the best way to build a great team is to gather a group of the most talented individuals. _ Companies spend millions hiring top business people. Is their money well spent?   _ They focused on football, basketball and baseball. The results are mixed. For football and basketball, adding talented players to a team proves a good method, but only up to the point where 70% of the players are top talent; above that level, the team's performance begins to decline. Interestingly, this trend isn't evident in baseball, where additional individual talent keeps improving the team's performance.   To explain this phenomenon, the researchers explored the degree to which a good performance by a team requires its members to coordinate (协调) their actions. _ In baseball, the performance of individual players is less dependent on teammates. They conclude that when task interdependence is high, team performance will suffer when there is too much talent, while individual talent will have positive effects on team performance when task interdependence is lower. If a basketball star is, forexample, trying to gain a high personal point total, he may take a shot himself when it would be better to pass the ball to a teammate, affecting the team's performance. Young children learning to play team sports are often told, "There is no I in TEAM." _   Another possibility is that when there is a lot of talent on a team, some players may make less effort. Just as in a game of tug-of-war (拔河比赛) whenever a person is added, everyone else pulls the rope with less force.   _ An A-team may require a balance - not just A players, but a few generous B players as well.

    选句填空 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 6.   By the end of the century, if not sooner, the world's oceans will be bluer and greener thanks to a warming climate , according to a new study.   At the heart of the phenomenon lie tiny marine microorganisms (海洋微生物) саllеd рhуtорlаnktоn. Весаuѕе оf thе wау lіght rеflесtѕ оff thе organisms , these phytoplankton create colourful patterns at the ocean surface. Ocean colour varies from green to blue, depending on the type and concentration of phytoplankton. Climate change will fuel the growth of phytoplankton in some areas, while reducing it in other spots, leading to changes in the ocean's appearance.   Phytoplankton live at the ocean surface, where they pull carbon dioxide(二氧化碳) into the ocean while giving off oxygen. When these organisms die, they bury carbon in the deep ocean, an important process that helps to regulate the global climate. But phytoplankton are vulnerable to the ocean's warming trend. Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth, since they need not only sunlight and carbon dioxide to grow, but also nutrients.   Stephanie Dutkiewicz, a scientist in MIT's Center for Global Change Science, built a climate model that projects changes to the oceans throughout the century. In a world that warms up by 3℃, it found that multiple changes to the colour of the oceans would occur. The model projects that currently blue areas with little phytoplankton could become even bluer. But in some waters, such as those of the Arctic, a warming will make conditions riper for phytoplankton, and these areas will turn greener. "Not only are the quantities of phytoplankton in the ocean changing," she said, " but the type of phytoplankton is changing."   And why does that matter? Phytoplankton are the base of the food web. If certain kinds begin to disappear from the ocean, Dutkiewicz said,"it will change the type of fish that will be able to survive." Those kinds of changes could affect the food chain.   Whatever colour changes the ocean experiences in the coming decades will probably be too gradual and unnoticeable, but they could mean significant changes. "It'll be a while before we can statistically show that the changes are happening because of climate change," Dutkiewicz said, "but the change in the colour of the ocean will be one of the early warning signals that we really have changed our planet. "

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 7.   The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don't know. By next year, half of the calls we receive will be scams(欺诈). We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of tools, apps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunately, it's too little, too late. By the time these "solutions" (解决方案) become widely available, scammers will have moved onto cleverer means. In the near future, it's not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. Soon you will also question whether the voice you're hearing is actually real.   That's because there are a number of powerful voice manipulation (处理) and automation technologies that are about to become widely available for anyone to use. At this year's I/O Conference, a company showed a new voice technology able to produce such a convincing human-sounding volce that it was able to speak to a receptionist and book a reservation without detection.   These developments are likely to make our current problems with robocalls much worse. The reason that robocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision. A decade of data breaches (数据侵人) of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mother's name,and far more. Armed with this knowledge, they're able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This means, for example, that a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank teller's, tricking you into “confirming" your address, mother's name, and card number. Scammers follow money,so companies will be the worst hit. A lot of business is still done over the phone, and much of it is based on trust and existing relationships. Voice manipulation technologies may weaken that gradually.   We need to deal with the insecure nature of our telecom networks. Phone carriers and consumers need to work together to find ways of determining and communicating what is real. That might mean either developing a uniform way to mark videos and images, showing when and who they were made by, or abandoning phone calls altogether and moving towards data-based communications - using apps like FaceTime or WhatsApp, which can be tied to your identity.   Credibility is hard to earn but easy to lose, and the problem is only going to get harder from here on out.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 8.   Alice Moore is a teenager entrepreneur (创业者), who in May 2015 set up her business AilieCandy. By the time she was 13, her company was worth millions of dollars with the invention of a super-sweet treat that could save kids' teeth, instead of destroying them.   It all began when Moore visited a bank with her dad. On the outing, she was offered a candy bar. However, her dad reminded her that sugary treats were bad for her teeth. But Moore was sick of missing out on candies. So she desired to get round the warning, "Why can't I make a healthy candy that's good for my teeth so that my parents can't say no to it?" With that in mind, Moore asked her dad if she could start her own candy company. He recommended that she do some research and talk to dentists about what a healthier candy would contain.   With her dad's permission, she spent the next two years researching online and conducting trials to get a recipe that was both tasty and tooth-friendly. She also approached dentists to learn more about teeth cleaning. Consequently, she succeeded in making a kind of candy only using natural sweeteners, which can reduce oral bacteria.   Moore then used her savings to get her business off the ground. Afterwards, she and her father secured their first business meeting with a supermarket owner, who finally agreed to sell Moore's product - CanCandy.   As CanCandy's success grows, so does Moore's credibility as a young entrepreneur. Moore is enthusiastic about the candy she created, and she's also positive about what the future might bring. She hopes that every kid can have a clean mouth and a broad smile.   Meanwhile, with her parents help, Moore is generally able to live a normal teenage life. Although she founded her company early on in life, she wasn't driven primarily by profit. Moore wants to use her unique talent to help others find their smiles. She donates 10% of AilieCandy's profits to Big Smiles. With her talent and determination, it appears that the sky could be the limit for Alice Moore.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 9.   Want to explore new cultures , meet new people and do something worthwhile at the same time? You can do all the three with Global Development Association (GDA). Whatever stage of life you're at, wherever you go and whatever project you do in GDA, you'll create positive changes in a poor and remote community (社区).   We work with volunteers of all ages and backgrounds. Most of our volunteers are aged 17 — 24. Now we need volunteer managers aged 25 — 75.They are extremely important in the safe and effective running of our programmes. We have such roles as project managers, mountain leaders, and communication officers.   Depending on which role you choose, you could help to increase a community's access to safe drinking water , or help to protect valuable local cultures. You might also design an adventure challenge to train young volunteers.   Not only will you help our young volunteers to develop personally, you'll also learn new skills and inerease your cultural awareness. You may have chances to meet new people who'll become your lifelong friends.   This summer we have both 4-week and 7-week programmes: Country Schedule 4-week programmes 7-week programmes Algeria 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug. Egypt 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug. Eenya 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug. South Africa 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug.   GDA ensures that volunteers work with community members and local project partners where our help is needed. All our projects aim to promote the development of poor and remore communities.   There is no other chance like a GDA programme. Join us as a volunteer manager to develop your own skills while bringing benefits to the communities.   Find out more about joining a GDA programme:   Website:www.glodeve.org   Email:humanresources@glodeve.org

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 10. Does the name of the college you attend really matter? Research on the question _ (suggest) that, for most students, it doesn't. What students do at college seems to matter much more than _ they go. The students benefiting most from college are those _ are totally engaged(参与) in academic life, taking full advantage of the college's chances and resources (资源). Students should have a proper attitude towards college before thinking about which college to attend, and its never too early to make necessary preparations for a healthy and _ (meaning) college experience.

    语法填空 2019年 ● 北京卷

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