• 1.   In the movies and on television, artificial intelligence (AI) is typically depicted as something sinister that will upend our way of life. When it comes to AI in business, we often hear about it in relation to automation and the impending loss of jobs, but in what ways is AI changing companies and the larger economy that don’t involve doom-and-gloom mass unemployment predictions?   A recent survey of manufacturing and service industries from Tata Consultancy Services found that companies currently use AI more often in computer-to-computer activities than in automating human activities. One common application? Preventing electronic security breaches, which, rather than eliminating IT jobs, actually makes those personnel more valuable to employers, because they help firms prevent hacking attempts. Here are a few other ways AI is aiding companies without replacing employees:   Better Hiring Practices   Companies are using artificial intelligence to remove some of the unconscious bias from hiring decisions. “There are experiments that show that, naturally, the results of interviews are much more biased than what AI does,” says Pedro Domingos, author of The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World and a computer science professor at the University of Washington. In addition, “ _” One company that’s doing this is called Blendoor. It uses analytics to help identify where there may be bias in the hiring process.   More Effective Marketing   Some AI software can analyze and optimize marketing email subject lines to increase open rates. One company in the UK, Phrasee, claims their software can outperform humans by up to 10 percent when it comes to email open rates. This can mean millions more in revenue. _ These are “tools that help people use data, not a replacement for people,” says Patrick H. Winston, a professor of artificial intelligence and computer science at MIT.   Saving Customers Money   Energy companies can use AI to help customers reduce their electricity bills, saving them money while helping the environment. Companies can also optimize their own energy use and cut down on the cost of electricity. Insurance companies, meanwhile, can base their premiums on AI models that more accurately access risk. _   Improved Accuracy   “Machine learning often provides a more reliable form of statistics, which makes data more valuable,” says Winston. It “helps people make smarter decisions.” _   Protecting and Maintaining Infrastructure A number of companies, particularly in energy and transportation, use AI image processing technology to inspect infrastructure and prevent equipment failure or leaks before they happen. “If they fail first and then you fix them, it’s very expensive,” says Domingos. “_ ”

    选句填空 2021年 ● 考研英语(一)

  • 2.   Teri Byrd: _   I was a zoo and wildlife park employee for years. Both the wildlife park and zoo claimed to be operating for the benefit of the animals and for conservation purposes. This claim was false. Neither one of them actually participated in any contributions whose bottom line is much more important than the condition of the animals.   Animals despise being captives in zoos. No matter how you enhance enclosures, they do not allow for freedom, a natural diet or adequate time for transparency with these institutions, and it's past time to eliminate zoos from our culture.    Karen R. Sime: _   As a zoology professor, I agree with Emma Marris that zoo displays can be sad and cruel. But she underestimates the educational value of zoos.   The zoology program at my university attracts students for whom zoo visits were the crucial formative experience that led them to major in biological sciences. These are mostly students who had no opportunity as children to travel to wilderness areas, wildlife refuges or national parks. Although good TV shows can help stir children's interest in conservation, they cannot replace the excitement of a zoo visit as an intense, immersive and interactive experience. Surely there must be some middle ground that balances zoos treatment of animals with their educational potential.    Reg Newberry: _   Emma Marris's article is an insult and a disservice to the thousands of passionate who work tirelessly to improve the lives of animals and protect our planet. She uses outdated research and decades-old examples to undermine the noble mission of organization committed to connecting children to a world beyond their own.   Zoos are at the forefront of conservation and constantly evolving to improve how thy care for animals and protect each species in its natural habitat. Are there tragedies? Of course. But they are the exception not the norm that Ms Marris implies A distressed animal in a zoo will get as good or better treatment than most of us at our local hospital.    Dean Gallea _   As a fellow environmentalist animal-protection advocate and longtime vegetarian. I could properly be in the same camp as Emma Marris on the issue of zoos. But I believe that well-run zoos and the heroic animals that suffer their captivity so serve a higher purpose. Were it not for opportunities to observe these beautiful wild creatures close to home many more people would be driven by their fascination to travel to wild areas to seek out disturb and even hunt them down.   Zoos are in that sense similar to natural history and archeology museums serving to satisfy our need for contact with these living creatures while leaving the vast majority undisturbed in their natural environments   John Fraser _   Emma Marris selectively describes and misrepresents the findings of our research. Our studies focused on the impact of zoo experiences on how people think about themselves and nature and the data points extracted from our studies do not, in any way, discount what is learned in a zoo visitZoos, which spare no effort to take of animals, should not be subjected to unfair criticism..   Zoos are tools for thinking. Our research provides strong support for the value of zoos in connecting people with animals and with nature. Zoos provide a critical voice for conservation and environmental protection. They afford an opportunity for people from all backgrounds to encounter a range of animals from drone bees to springbok or salmon to better understand the natural world we live in.

    选句填空 2022年 ● 考研英语(一)

  • 3.   According to Jessica Hagy, author of How to Be Interesting, it's not difficult to make yourself interesting at a dinner party.   _, if you're out of your comfort zone or if you're wandering into somebody's house for the first time. So the main thing is just to show up and be adventurous, trying different foods and talking to strangers.   People love to talk about themselves. If you can start the conversation with a question other than “What do you do for a living?", you'll be able to get a lot more interesting conversation out of whomever it is you're talking to. _. it can bring in "I have this old, broken-down vehicle" or "I rode the bus with these crazy people who were laughing at silly jokes in the back." It just opens up conversation.   _? If you can't take their wine away, you should certainly try to take away their soapbox (讲台).If you're the host, you can ask them to help you in the kitchen with something and just remove them from the situation. _.   And what about that other dinner-party killer: awkward silence? If you're faced with an awkward silence at a dinner party, the only thing that always gets everyone talking again is to give the host a compliment (赞扬). _. Just quickly tun around and say, "This cake is extremely delicious and you have to tell me all about it.” So being interesting at a dinner party isn’t that hard.

    选句填空 2021年 ● 安徽卷

  • 4. Is Fresh Air Really Good for You?   We all grew up hearing people tell us to "go out and get some fresh air." _ According to recent studies, the answer is a big YES, if the air quality in your camping area is good.   _ If the air you're breathing is clean - which it would be if you're away from the smog of cities - then the air is flled with life-giving, energizing oxygen. If you exercise out of doors, your body will learn to breathe more deeply, allowing even more oxygen to get to your muscles (肌肉) and your brain.   Recently, people have begun studying the connection between the natural world and healing (治愈). _ In these places patients can go to be near nature during their recovery. It turns out that just looking at green, growing things can reduce stress, lower blood pressure, and put people into a better mood (情绪). Greenery is good for us. Hospital patients who see tree branches out their window are likely to recover at a faster rate than patients who see buildings or sky instead. _ It gives us a great feeling of peace.   _ While the sun's rays can age and harm our skin, they also give us beneficial Vitamin D. To make sure you get enough Vitamin D - but still protect your skin - put on sunscreen right as you head outside. It takes sunscreen about fifteen minutes to start working, and that's plenty of time for your skin to absorb a day's worth of Vitamin D.

    选句填空 2019年 ● 全国卷Ⅰ

  • 5.   Much of the work in today's world is accomplished (完成) in teams. Most people believe the best way to build a great team is to gather a group of the most talented individuals. _ Companies spend millions hiring top business people. Is their money well spent?   _ They focused on football, basketball and baseball. The results are mixed. For football and basketball, adding talented players to a team proves a good method, but only up to the point where 70% of the players are top talent; above that level, the team's performance begins to decline. Interestingly, this trend isn't evident in baseball, where additional individual talent keeps improving the team's performance.   To explain this phenomenon, the researchers explored the degree to which a good performance by a team requires its members to coordinate (协调) their actions. _ In baseball, the performance of individual players is less dependent on teammates. They conclude that when task interdependence is high, team performance will suffer when there is too much talent, while individual talent will have positive effects on team performance when task interdependence is lower. If a basketball star is, forexample, trying to gain a high personal point total, he may take a shot himself when it would be better to pass the ball to a teammate, affecting the team's performance. Young children learning to play team sports are often told, "There is no I in TEAM." _   Another possibility is that when there is a lot of talent on a team, some players may make less effort. Just as in a game of tug-of-war (拔河比赛) whenever a person is added, everyone else pulls the rope with less force.   _ An A-team may require a balance - not just A players, but a few generous B players as well.

    选句填空 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 6.   Rock music of many different styles. Even though there is a common spirit among all music groups, they make very different music. _ At that time the Beatles entered the world of music from Liverpool.   After they were given an invitation to appear live on BBC, the Beatles quickly became famous in Britain with nationwide tours. By mid-1963, the Beatles had been extremely popular in England. _ They held large concerts and performed at clubs. They became the hottest thing on the pop music scene in England. They began as a modestly successful musician group and ended the year as show business legends (传说). John Lennon and Paul McCartney were named composers of the year.    _ They were not sure how the Americans would react to the new type of music. Beatlemania hit New York on February 7, 1964. Hundreds of fans jammed the airport to greet them. _ The concert was broadcast live and attracted the largest one night audience in the history of television up to that time. The Beatles were deseribed as a British invasion (入侵) by local and nationwide newspapers at that time. Their victory in America was still remembered as a major turning point in the history of rock and roll. Thanks to the Beatles , a lot of opportunities were opened up to new faces on the market. _

    选句填空 2019年 ● 浙江卷

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