• 1.   By the end of the century, if not sooner, the world's oceans will be bluer and greener thanks to a warming climate , according to a new study.   At the heart of the phenomenon lie tiny marine microorganisms (海洋微生物) саllеd рhуtорlаnktоn. Весаuѕе оf thе wау lіght rеflесtѕ оff thе organisms , these phytoplankton create colourful patterns at the ocean surface. Ocean colour varies from green to blue, depending on the type and concentration of phytoplankton. Climate change will fuel the growth of phytoplankton in some areas, while reducing it in other spots, leading to changes in the ocean's appearance.   Phytoplankton live at the ocean surface, where they pull carbon dioxide(二氧化碳) into the ocean while giving off oxygen. When these organisms die, they bury carbon in the deep ocean, an important process that helps to regulate the global climate. But phytoplankton are vulnerable to the ocean's warming trend. Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth, since they need not only sunlight and carbon dioxide to grow, but also nutrients.   Stephanie Dutkiewicz, a scientist in MIT's Center for Global Change Science, built a climate model that projects changes to the oceans throughout the century. In a world that warms up by 3℃, it found that multiple changes to the colour of the oceans would occur. The model projects that currently blue areas with little phytoplankton could become even bluer. But in some waters, such as those of the Arctic, a warming will make conditions riper for phytoplankton, and these areas will turn greener. "Not only are the quantities of phytoplankton in the ocean changing," she said, " but the type of phytoplankton is changing."   And why does that matter? Phytoplankton are the base of the food web. If certain kinds begin to disappear from the ocean, Dutkiewicz said,"it will change the type of fish that will be able to survive." Those kinds of changes could affect the food chain.   Whatever colour changes the ocean experiences in the coming decades will probably be too gradual and unnoticeable, but they could mean significant changes. "It'll be a while before we can statistically show that the changes are happening because of climate change," Dutkiewicz said, "but the change in the colour of the ocean will be one of the early warning signals that we really have changed our planet. "

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 2.   The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don't know. By next year, half of the calls we receive will be scams(欺诈). We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of tools, apps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunately, it's too little, too late. By the time these "solutions" (解决方案) become widely available, scammers will have moved onto cleverer means. In the near future, it's not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. Soon you will also question whether the voice you're hearing is actually real.   That's because there are a number of powerful voice manipulation (处理) and automation technologies that are about to become widely available for anyone to use. At this year's I/O Conference, a company showed a new voice technology able to produce such a convincing human-sounding volce that it was able to speak to a receptionist and book a reservation without detection.   These developments are likely to make our current problems with robocalls much worse. The reason that robocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision. A decade of data breaches (数据侵人) of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mother's name,and far more. Armed with this knowledge, they're able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This means, for example, that a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank teller's, tricking you into “confirming" your address, mother's name, and card number. Scammers follow money,so companies will be the worst hit. A lot of business is still done over the phone, and much of it is based on trust and existing relationships. Voice manipulation technologies may weaken that gradually.   We need to deal with the insecure nature of our telecom networks. Phone carriers and consumers need to work together to find ways of determining and communicating what is real. That might mean either developing a uniform way to mark videos and images, showing when and who they were made by, or abandoning phone calls altogether and moving towards data-based communications - using apps like FaceTime or WhatsApp, which can be tied to your identity.   Credibility is hard to earn but easy to lose, and the problem is only going to get harder from here on out.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 3.   Alice Moore is a teenager entrepreneur (创业者), who in May 2015 set up her business AilieCandy. By the time she was 13, her company was worth millions of dollars with the invention of a super-sweet treat that could save kids' teeth, instead of destroying them.   It all began when Moore visited a bank with her dad. On the outing, she was offered a candy bar. However, her dad reminded her that sugary treats were bad for her teeth. But Moore was sick of missing out on candies. So she desired to get round the warning, "Why can't I make a healthy candy that's good for my teeth so that my parents can't say no to it?" With that in mind, Moore asked her dad if she could start her own candy company. He recommended that she do some research and talk to dentists about what a healthier candy would contain.   With her dad's permission, she spent the next two years researching online and conducting trials to get a recipe that was both tasty and tooth-friendly. She also approached dentists to learn more about teeth cleaning. Consequently, she succeeded in making a kind of candy only using natural sweeteners, which can reduce oral bacteria.   Moore then used her savings to get her business off the ground. Afterwards, she and her father secured their first business meeting with a supermarket owner, who finally agreed to sell Moore's product - CanCandy.   As CanCandy's success grows, so does Moore's credibility as a young entrepreneur. Moore is enthusiastic about the candy she created, and she's also positive about what the future might bring. She hopes that every kid can have a clean mouth and a broad smile.   Meanwhile, with her parents help, Moore is generally able to live a normal teenage life. Although she founded her company early on in life, she wasn't driven primarily by profit. Moore wants to use her unique talent to help others find their smiles. She donates 10% of AilieCandy's profits to Big Smiles. With her talent and determination, it appears that the sky could be the limit for Alice Moore.

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

  • 4.   Want to explore new cultures , meet new people and do something worthwhile at the same time? You can do all the three with Global Development Association (GDA). Whatever stage of life you're at, wherever you go and whatever project you do in GDA, you'll create positive changes in a poor and remote community (社区).   We work with volunteers of all ages and backgrounds. Most of our volunteers are aged 17 — 24. Now we need volunteer managers aged 25 — 75.They are extremely important in the safe and effective running of our programmes. We have such roles as project managers, mountain leaders, and communication officers.   Depending on which role you choose, you could help to increase a community's access to safe drinking water , or help to protect valuable local cultures. You might also design an adventure challenge to train young volunteers.   Not only will you help our young volunteers to develop personally, you'll also learn new skills and inerease your cultural awareness. You may have chances to meet new people who'll become your lifelong friends.   This summer we have both 4-week and 7-week programmes: Country Schedule 4-week programmes 7-week programmes Algeria 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug. Egypt 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug. Eenya 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug. South Africa 2 Aug. - 29 Aug. 215 Jun. - 2 Aug.   GDA ensures that volunteers work with community members and local project partners where our help is needed. All our projects aim to promote the development of poor and remore communities.   There is no other chance like a GDA programme. Join us as a volunteer manager to develop your own skills while bringing benefits to the communities.   Find out more about joining a GDA programme:   Website:www.glodeve.org   Email:humanresources@glodeve.org

    阅读理解 2019年 ● 北京卷

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